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  1. #1

      hadia
    27-10-2003
    596

    ..





    ..
    muslim_musawi
    ..

    : ...

    :

    38 4 5.6
    :
    1_
    2_

    :
    (( )) ... ..

    :1_ ISO 100 , 200 , 400 , 600 100 200 :D 600 ....
    2_
    3_


    ; 10-06-2006 12:36

  2. #2

    24-09-2003
    2,965

    hadia
    ..

    ..

    :
    ..

    ( )

    ....

  3. #3

    28-12-2003
    209

    Smile

    ...

    ...
    .. ...

    ... :D ..



    ...




    .. ..

  4. #4

      hadia
    27-10-2003
    596

    :D

    ..

    :D

    ..


    35 ..
    *********************
    : - (Point & Shot Cameras) . - (SLR) . - (Range-finder Cameras).

    , , . .

    , , .

    Leica M6




    (1500 - 2500 ) . : . .

    . . ( 30 ), , .



    (SLR)



    , . , Olympus IS-200 , Minolta Riva Zoom 140EX. ( ) " " . , . . , , . .

    , . : , . . , . . . . .

    , . . .

    . . : ( ) . . . , " " . APS 35, GA645 GX680 GX617 S2Pro.

    : - ʺ - ֺ - . ( ). , , , , .

    . , , , .

    0
    hadia ; 10-02-2004 00:04

  5. #5

    24-09-2003
    2,965

    hadia ,
    :

    :
    : - (Point & Shot Cameras) . - (SLR) . - (Range-finder Cameras).
    ..

    ....

  6. #6

      hadia
    27-10-2003
    596




    :o..

    Compact Cameras

    - .

    : Fixed focal length ( ) Vary focal length Discreet focal length.

    , , Canon BF Twin (38 80) (38) (80).

    - . . . , .

    , 28- 35 (Maximum Aperture) 2.8 5.6 . , .

    :

    - ( 35 ) Minolta 10BF 35 4.5 5.6 (Free Focus) . , .

    - (150- 200) : Olympus MJU-II , Pentax Espio Mini , Yashica T5 Carl Zeiss . 35 2.8 3.5 .

    - ( 1000 ) : Contax T2 Carl Zeiss Sonnar T*38mm f/2.8 , Leica Minilux Leica Summarit 40mm f/2,4 (Minolta TC-1 (Minolta G-Rokkor 28mm f/3.5 ( Nikon 28Ti (Nikkor 28mm f/2.8 .

    , . , . () : Leica Mini 3 Konica Hexar .


    Konica Hexar


    :
    - (35- 70 , 35- 80 ), - : 38- 135 38- 140 . : (Leica Minilux Zoom (Vario-Elmar 35-70mm f/3.5-6.5 (Contax TVS (Carl Zeiss Vario-Sonnar T*28-56mm f/3.5-5.6 .

    , - . , . ( ), .

    , (Maximum Aperture) f/7 , , ( 400 800).



    - .

    (Latitude) . .
    - , - ( ) .

    TTL , ( ...) , . , . , , . .

    () (AE-Lock), . , . .

    , . (Sensitivity) , Shutter speed Aperture. 200 , . . ( DX-Code ) . (100 200 400 ) (100, 200, 400, 800, 1600 3200 ). , 1/400 .

    - .

    , (Viewfinder) , , . , , . .

    " " . - (AF-Lock) . , .

    , , (AE/AF-Lock).

    . , 1.5 10. . . , (), 1.5 - . (), .

    . . , , . .

    **************************
    SLR Cameras

    . , . . ,


    " ".


    .

    (Single Lens Reflex Camera (SLR. ( ), , ( ). " " . , - "" "", " ", , -- " " .

    , . , , . " (SLR) ".

    350 . (Auto Focus) 600 . , " " () ....

    .

    - - , .

    "" : Canon Nikon Minolta Olympus Pentax, : Leica Contax.

    - 35. , ( 1000 ), . , Carl Zeiss .

    "" . . . 35 , (Top Models) , . 5-10 , 365 , . , (Built-in zoom lens) , , "" .

    , , .

    1- , . , ( ). - , , Nikon FM3 .

    2- . - - .

    3- ( ), , . , . . , . , "" . .

    4- , , , ....

    5- , . , , . . , , .


    250 - 300

    , 250 - 300 . : . (TTL), (Aperture Priority) (Shutter Priority). , ( ). - Yashica FX3 Super 200 Pentax K1000 Ricoh KR-5 III Soligor SR-200 PK. - Yashica 108/109 Pentax P30T Minolta X-300. Pentax ZX-M . (: . ZX PZ).

    , (250 - 300 ), (50 ). , , , . , , , .

    , (250 0 300 ) , , .

    - 500

    . . .

    1. " " - Canon EOS 3000 Minolta Dynax 300si .

    2. - Pentax MZ-30 Canon EOS 300V Minolta Dynax 500si Nikon F65 Minolta 505si Super.

    3. - Canon EOS 30 Minolta 600si Pentax ZX-5N / ZX-3 Nikon F601 Nikon F80 .

    4. - Minolta Dynax 700si / 800si Canon EOS 5 Pentax Z-1P Nikon F90X.

    5. - Nikon F100 Minolta Dynax 9 Canon EOS 3.

    6. - Nikon F5 Canon EOS 1V Contax 1N .

    :

    " " . , . , .

    - . . , Lens Mount (Composite Material) . (Motor Drive) , (Expo-Zone) . , . . . 500 - 600 .

    -
    . , , , Exposure Bracketing, .

    -
    , ( , ). . , ( ). ( Sport Portrait). , . - 1300 .

    -
    . - 100 - 150 . (Focus Screens) .

    , "" , .

    . , , . Lens Mount , , . , .

    ..

  7. #7
      Abdullah Hashim
    18-08-2003
    3,243

    . .

    .
    , " ) . (Zoom) , .

    .

    : . . ( )


    : ( ). (Landscapes)


    (sharpness). ( ) . .

  8. #8

      hadia
    27-10-2003
    596

    muslim_musawi

    ..

    " " , " " .




    3 400 , . . : Hyperfocal Distance -

    ∞, . , . : 20 , (A)- B, f/22 1.5 (C), f/16 1.8 3 f/8 .

    , , 50 35 , f/11 , ( ) 15. , 10 , 6 30 . 20 , 8 ∞.

    :

    : (U)

    U = f / F

    f -

    F -

    : (U) (D) Q

    Q= U * D

    D -

    : Df

    Df=1+Q

    Db

    Db=1-Q



    = (D) (Df)

    = (D) (Db)

    * , 80 , f16 4 .

    U ( 16 / 80 ) (0.2) Q ( 4* 0.2 ) ( 0.8 )

    ( 1 + 0.8 = 1.8 )

    ( 1 - 0.8 = 0.2 )

    ( 4 / 1.8 = 2.2 )

    ( 4/ 0.2 = 20 )

    2.2 20 , .

    , .

    50 :

    :D ..
    -

    * . , , . , .

    * . , . Landscapes . Close-up .

    * ( ). , , () ( ).

    ..

    ..

  9. #9
    -

    21-06-2003
    100%
    6,121

    ...


    .. ...

    ..


  10. #10

    09-02-2004
    taroot
    1,408






  11. #11

      hadia
    27-10-2003
    596

    :)

    mad:mad:
    :D :D


    :STU.DNT):
    50

  12. #12

      hadia
    27-10-2003
    596















    ()





    . . Tv " Time Value". 1000/1 , 500/1 , 250/1 , 125/1 , 60/1 , 30/1 , 15/1 , 8/1 , 4/1 , 2/1 , 1 . , . 250/1 125/1 500/1 .

    Bulb. Shutter Release Button. . .

    (SLR) . . . X.

    , . . () . 60/1 , 24 , . " " 105 . 60/1 . , , . " ", .


    - f-stop . , " " . , Av " Aperture Value". f16, f11, f8, f5.6, f4, f2.8. f2 .
    . f-numbers ( f2 , f2.8 ), ( ) f-numbers ( f11 , f16 , f22 ), ( ). , ( ). , f8 f11 f5.6. , , . . 50 60/1 , 300 500/1 .



    (sharpness). ( ) . . , . . , (A) " ∞" , (B) f5.6 1.2 . 1.2 . f22 45 ( ). Magnification Aperture . , . (f2, f2.8) (), (f16, f22) ().

    , . (). , , . 50 . , , f22 .

    , , . . , ( ) . .

    , . .


    . , . . 500 500 . . , , ( ). f-20mm f=35mm. () f=50mm. f=80mm f=300mm . f=300mm .[IMG]http://www.foto-master.com/data/techniques/basic/1/img8.jpg[/IMG[
    , ( ). f=24mm, f=300mm. . () , ( ) , , ( ).

    , . , f=24mm f=300mm . , .


    . , ( ) () . . . . , ( ). , . . (). : , .
    ISO ( ASA DIN). , . 100 200 400. 200 100 . 400 200 100 .

    . (), , , , . 1600 1/125 .

    . . ( ) , . .

    Granuality. (). . , , 10x12 . . , .

    ()
    SLR, , . , . , , . , . .

    ().

    :
    " " SLR , 1/ 125s "x" , . , , 1/ 60s 1/ 30s. .

    :
    , . , " ", . , , . , TTL .

    (Guide Number) :
    (GN) . , . , 32 , 4 , 32 4 f8. 100 (ISO 100). . , 200 f11, 400 f16. 50 f5.6 .

    . . . , .


    , . , . . , . ( ) . , . 2:1 ( ) 4:1 ( ). . 16:1. f5.6 f8 f11 2:1 4:1. .


    1/ 1000 1/ 10,000 . , . , () . . ( ), . , . .
    , , , , , .



  13. #13
    -

    21-08-2003
    !
    16,716

    hadia

    ... .. ( )
    ( ) ..!


    .. ..
    ... ....!

    ...

    :D
    ...
    ...!

    ...
    .. ( ) ...!

    ..!

    ..

  14. #14

      hadia
    27-10-2003
    596





    ( ) :o

    :o








    soft

    soft warm



    Diffuser Light

    Diffuser 1

    Diffuser 2

    Diffuser 3

    ( )

    :

    , .

    ǿ , , . , , , . , ǿ

    , . . , , . , . .

    . .

    ():
    . , (Reflections) , , . (SLR), (Through The Lens metering system) TTL, , . TTL. , .

    . , . . .

    ():
    . , , . , , .


    , .






    Landscapes Contrast. . . , .

    :
    () , , . (Tiffen FL-D, Hoya FL-Day or FL-W) . ( ). .

    (Close-up lenses):
    , , . . : +1, +2, +3 +4. . +1 (39 ) (∞). +2 (19 ), +3 - (13 ), +4 (9 ). , , , . . , 12 , Extension Tube Bellows.

    , . 135 , , .

    (Skylight Filter):
    , . . , , . . .

    :
    . , , .

    , , . , . ( ) . , . , .

    (ND 0.6 ND 0.9)

    : . , , . . .
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    , , , , . .

    " " , . . , , Ø52mm Ø55mm . . : , , .
    - . . , . .

    : Cokin ( )
    hadia ; 23-02-2004 03:01


  15. #15

      hadia
    27-10-2003
    596

    Polarizer

    "Polarizer"
    , , Saturation , . ѿ - .

    , , ( ). , ( ), .


    2X , 4X .

    , , . ( ) (90 ) .


    , . . . , 30 - 40 ( ). , . . , ,







    : . SLR AF . , , .